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T1003.001 LSASS Memory

Adversaries may attempt to access credential material stored in the process memory of the Local Security Authority Subsystem Service (LSASS). After a user logs on, the system generates and stores a variety of credential materials in LSASS process memory. These credential materials can be harvested by an administrative user or SYSTEM and used to conduct Lateral Movement using Use Alternate Authentication Material.

As well as in-memory techniques, the LSASS process memory can be dumped from the target host and analyzed on a local system.

For example, on the target host use procdump:

  • procdump -ma lsass.exe lsass_dump

Locally, mimikatz can be run using:

  • sekurlsa::Minidump lsassdump.dmp
  • sekurlsa::logonPasswords

Built-in Windows tools such as comsvcs.dll can also be used:

  • rundll32.exe C:\Windows\System32\comsvcs.dll MiniDump PID lsass.dmp full12

Windows Security Support Provider (SSP) DLLs are loaded into LSSAS process at system start. Once loaded into the LSA, SSP DLLs have access to encrypted and plaintext passwords that are stored in Windows, such as any logged-on user’s Domain password or smart card PINs. The SSP configuration is stored in two Registry keys: HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Lsa\Security Packages and HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Lsa\OSConfig\Security Packages. An adversary may modify these Registry keys to add new SSPs, which will be loaded the next time the system boots, or when the AddSecurityPackage Windows API function is called.3

The following SSPs can be used to access credentials:

  • Msv: Interactive logons, batch logons, and service logons are done through the MSV authentication package.
  • Wdigest: The Digest Authentication protocol is designed for use with Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and Simple Authentication Security Layer (SASL) exchanges.4
  • Kerberos: Preferred for mutual client-server domain authentication in Windows 2000 and later.
  • CredSSP: Provides SSO and Network Level Authentication for Remote Desktop Services.4
Item Value
ID T1003.001
Sub-techniques T1003.001, T1003.002, T1003.003, T1003.004, T1003.005, T1003.006, T1003.007, T1003.008
Tactics TA0006
Platforms Windows
Permissions required Administrator, SYSTEM
Version 1.1
Created 11 February 2020
Last Modified 15 October 2021

Procedure Examples

ID Name Description
G0006 APT1 APT1 has been known to use credential dumping using Mimikatz.18
G0007 APT28 APT28 regularly deploys both publicly available (ex: Mimikatz) and custom password retrieval tools on victims.7172 They have also dumped the LSASS process memory using the MiniDump function.73
G0022 APT3 APT3 has used a tool to dump credentials by injecting itself into lsass.exe and triggering with the argument “dig.”45
G0050 APT32 APT32 used Mimikatz and customized versions of Windows Credential Dumper to harvest credentials.4243
G0064 APT33 APT33 has used a variety of publicly available tools like LaZagne, Mimikatz, and ProcDump to dump credentials.6970
G0087 APT39 APT39 has used Mimikatz, Windows Credential Editor and ProcDump to dump credentials.80
G0096 APT41 APT41 has used hashdump, Mimikatz, and the Windows Credential Editor to dump password hashes from memory and authenticate to other user accounts.6768
G0143 Aquatic Panda Aquatic Panda has attempted to harvest credentials through LSASS memory dumping.82
S0606 Bad Rabbit Bad Rabbit has used Mimikatz to harvest credentials from the victim’s machine.31
G0108 Blue Mockingbird Blue Mockingbird has used Mimikatz to retrieve credentials from LSASS memory.46
G0060 BRONZE BUTLER BRONZE BUTLER has used various tools (such as Mimikatz and WCE) to perform credential dumping.66
G0003 Cleaver Cleaver has been known to dump credentials using Mimikatz and Windows Credential Editor.35
S0154 Cobalt Strike Cobalt Strike can spawn a job to inject into LSASS memory and dump password hashes.41
S0046 CozyCar CozyCar has executed Mimikatz to harvest stored credentials from the victim and further victim penetration.40
S0187 Daserf Daserf leverages Mimikatz and Windows Credential Editor to steal credentials.39
S0367 Emotet Emotet has been observed dropping password grabber modules including Mimikatz. 29
S0363 Empire Empire contains an implementation of Mimikatz to gather credentials from memory.13
G0037 FIN6 FIN6 has used Windows Credential Editor for credential dumping.5859
G0061 FIN8 FIN8 harvests credentials using Invoke-Mimikatz or Windows Credentials Editor (WCE).55
G0117 Fox Kitten Fox Kitten has used prodump to dump credentials from LSASS.44
G0093 GALLIUM GALLIUM used a modified version of Mimikatz along with a PowerShell-based Mimikatz to dump credentials on the victim machines.7879
S0342 GreyEnergy GreyEnergy has a module for Mimikatz to collect Windows credentials from the victim’s machine.30
G0125 HAFNIUM HAFNIUM has used procdump to dump the LSASS process memory.841
S0357 Impacket SecretsDump and Mimikatz modules within Impacket can perform credential dumping to obtain account and password information.16
G0119 Indrik Spider Indrik Spider used Cobalt Strike to carry out credential dumping using ProcDump.83
G0004 Ke3chang Ke3chang has dumped credentials, including by using Mimikatz.767574
G0094 Kimsuky Kimsuky has gathered credentials using Mimikatz and ProcDump.525153
S0349 LaZagne LaZagne can perform credential dumping from memory to obtain account and password information.17
G0077 Leafminer Leafminer used several tools for retrieving login and password information, including LaZagne and Mimikatz.63
G0065 Leviathan Leviathan has used publicly available tools to dump password hashes, including ProcDump and WCE.81
S0681 Lizar Lizar can run Mimikatz to harvest credentials.3334
S0121 Lslsass Lslsass can dump active logon session password hashes from the lsass process.18
G0059 Magic Hound Magic Hound stole domain credentials from Microsoft Active Directory Domain Controller and leveraged Mimikatz.49
S0002 Mimikatz Mimikatz performs credential dumping to obtain account and password information useful in gaining access to additional systems and enterprise network resources. It contains functionality to acquire information about credentials in many ways, including from the LSASS Memory.22232425
G0069 MuddyWater MuddyWater has performed credential dumping with Mimikatz and procdump64.exe.858687
S0056 Net Crawler Net Crawler uses credential dumpers such as Mimikatz and Windows Credential Editor to extract cached credentials from Windows systems.35
S0368 NotPetya NotPetya contains a modified version of Mimikatz to help gather credentials that are later used for lateral movement.373825
G0049 OilRig OilRig has used credential dumping tools such as Mimikatz to steal credentials to accounts logged into the compromised system and to Outlook Web Access.47484950
S0439 Okrum Okrum was seen using MimikatzLite to perform credential dumping.32
S0365 Olympic Destroyer Olympic Destroyer contains a module that tries to obtain credentials from LSASS, similar to Mimikatz. These credentials are used with PsExec and Windows Management Instrumentation to help the malware propagate itself across a network.36
G0116 Operation Wocao Operation Wocao has used ProcDump to dump credentials from memory.60
G0068 PLATINUM PLATINUM has used keyloggers that are also capable of dumping credentials.54
S0428 PoetRAT PoetRAT used voStro.exe, a compiled pypykatz (Python version of Mimikatz), to steal credentials.28
S0378 PoshC2 PoshC2 contains an implementation of Mimikatz to gather credentials from memory.26
S0194 PowerSploit PowerSploit contains a collection of Exfiltration modules that can harvest credentials using Mimikatz.1920
S0192 Pupy Pupy can execute Lazagne as well as Mimikatz using PowerShell.21
S0583 Pysa Pysa can perform OS credential dumping using Mimikatz.27
G0034 Sandworm Team Sandworm Team‘s plainpwd tool is a modified version of Mimikatz and dumps Windows credentials from system memory.6162
G0091 Silence Silence has used the Farse6.1 utility (based on Mimikatz) to extract credentials from lsass.exe.77
S0692 SILENTTRINITY SILENTTRINITY can create a memory dump of LSASS via the MiniDumpWriteDump Win32 API call.14
G0088 TEMP.Veles TEMP.Veles has used Mimikatz and a custom tool, SecHack, to harvest credentials. 57
G0027 Threat Group-3390 Threat Group-3390 actors have used a modified version of Mimikatz called Wrapikatz to dump credentials. They have also dumped credentials from domain controllers.6465
G0107 Whitefly Whitefly has used Mimikatz to obtain credentials.56
S0005 Windows Credential Editor Windows Credential Editor can dump credentials.15


ID Mitigation Description
M1040 Behavior Prevention on Endpoint On Windows 10, enable Attack Surface Reduction (ASR) rules to secure LSASS and prevent credential stealing. 12
M1043 Credential Access Protection With Windows 10, Microsoft implemented new protections called Credential Guard to protect the LSA secrets that can be used to obtain credentials through forms of credential dumping. It is not configured by default and has hardware and firmware system requirements. It also does not protect against all forms of credential dumping.1011
M1028 Operating System Configuration Consider disabling or restricting NTLM.7 Consider disabling WDigest authentication.8
M1027 Password Policies Ensure that local administrator accounts have complex, unique passwords across all systems on the network.
M1026 Privileged Account Management Do not put user or admin domain accounts in the local administrator groups across systems unless they are tightly controlled, as this is often equivalent to having a local administrator account with the same password on all systems. Follow best practices for design and administration of an enterprise network to limit privileged account use across administrative tiers.
M1025 Privileged Process Integrity On Windows 8.1 and Windows Server 2012 R2, enable Protected Process Light for LSA.9
M1017 User Training Limit credential overlap across accounts and systems by training users and administrators not to use the same password for multiple accounts.


ID Data Source Data Component
DS0017 Command Command Execution
DS0009 Process OS API Execution


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