Skip to content

T1012 Query Registry

Adversaries may interact with the Windows Registry to gather information about the system, configuration, and installed software.

The Registry contains a significant amount of information about the operating system, configuration, software, and security.1 Information can easily be queried using the Reg utility, though other means to access the Registry exist. Some of the information may help adversaries to further their operation within a network. Adversaries may use the information from Query Registry during automated discovery to shape follow-on behaviors, including whether or not the adversary fully infects the target and/or attempts specific actions.

Item Value
ID T1012
Tactics TA0007
Platforms Windows
Version 1.3
Created 31 May 2017
Last Modified 03 April 2023

Procedure Examples

ID Name Description
S0045 ADVSTORESHELL ADVSTORESHELL can enumerate registry keys.1112
G0050 APT32 APT32‘s backdoor can query the Windows Registry to gather system information. 96
G0087 APT39 APT39 has used various strains of malware to query the Registry.108
S0438 Attor Attor has opened the registry and performed query searches.16
S0344 Azorult Azorult can check for installed software on the system under the Registry key Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Uninstall.43
S0414 BabyShark BabyShark has executed the reg query command for HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Terminal Server Client\Default.33
S0031 BACKSPACE BACKSPACE is capable of enumerating and making modifications to an infected system’s Registry.61
S0239 Bankshot Bankshot searches for certain Registry keys to be configured before executing the payload.83
S0534 Bazar Bazar can query Windows\CurrentVersion\Uninstall for installed applications.3637
S0574 BendyBear BendyBear can query the host’s Registry key at HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Console\QuickEdit to retrieve data.81
S0268 Bisonal Bisonal has used the RegQueryValueExA function to retrieve proxy information in the Registry.25
S0570 BitPaymer BitPaymer can use the RegEnumKeyW to iterate through Registry keys.22
S0252 Brave Prince Brave Prince gathers information about the Registry.7
S1039 Bumblebee Bumblebee can check the Registry for specific keys.64
S0030 Carbanak Carbanak checks the Registry key HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings for proxy configurations information.55
S0484 Carberp Carberp has searched the Image File Execution Options registry key for “Debugger” within every subkey.49
S0335 Carbon Carbon enumerates values in the Registry.85
S0348 Cardinal RAT Cardinal RAT contains watchdog functionality that periodically ensures HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Windows\Load is set to point to its executable.59
S0674 CharmPower CharmPower has the ability to enumerate Uninstall registry values.82
G0114 Chimera Chimera has queried Registry keys using reg query \\HKU\\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Terminal Server Client\Servers and reg query \\HKU\\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings.104
S0023 CHOPSTICK CHOPSTICK provides access to the Windows Registry, which can be used to gather information.15
S0660 Clambling Clambling has the ability to enumerate Registry keys, including KEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Bitcoin\Bitcoin-Qt\strDataDir to search for a bitcoin wallet.7574
S0154 Cobalt Strike Cobalt Strike can query HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Office\\Excel\Security\AccessVBOM\ to determine if the security setting for restricting default programmatic access is enabled.4647
S0126 ComRAT ComRAT can check the default browser by querying HKCR\http\shell\open\command.67
S0115 Crimson Crimson can check the Registry for the presence of HKCU\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\last_edate to determine how long it has been installed on a host.56
S0673 DarkWatchman DarkWatchman can query the Registry to determine if it has already been installed on the system.51
S0354 Denis Denis queries the Registry for keys and values.9
S0021 Derusbi Derusbi is capable of enumerating Registry keys and values.89
S0186 DownPaper DownPaper searches and reads the value of the Windows Update Registry Run key.13
G0035 Dragonfly Dragonfly has queried the Registry to identify victim information.98
S0567 Dtrack Dtrack can collect the RegisteredOwner, RegisteredOrganization, and InstallDate registry values.93
S0091 Epic Epic uses the rem reg query command to obtain values from Registry keys.66
S0512 FatDuke FatDuke can get user agent strings for the default browser from HKCU\Software\Classes\http\shell\open\command.42
S0267 FELIXROOT FELIXROOT queries the Registry for specific keys for potential privilege escalation and proxy information. FELIXROOT has also used WMI to query the Windows Registry.3435
S0182 FinFisher FinFisher queries Registry values as part of its anti-sandbox checks.7980
G0117 Fox Kitten Fox Kitten has accessed Registry hives ntuser.dat and UserClass.dat.95
S1044 FunnyDream FunnyDream can check Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings to extract the ProxyServer string.2
S0666 Gelsemium Gelsemium can open random files and Registry keys to obscure malware behavior from sandbox analysis.40
S0032 gh0st RAT gh0st RAT has checked for the existence of a Service key to determine if it has already been installed on the system.62
S0249 Gold Dragon Gold Dragon enumerates registry keys with the command regkeyenum and obtains information for the Registry key HKEY_CURRENT_USER\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run.7
S0376 HOPLIGHT A variant of HOPLIGHT hooks lsass.exe, and lsass.exe then checks the Registry for the data value ‘rdpproto’ under the key SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Lsa Name.69
S0203 Hydraq Hydraq creates a backdoor through which remote attackers can retrieve system information, such as CPU speed, from Registry keys.8788
S0604 Industroyer Industroyer has a data wiper component that enumerates keys in the Registry HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services.86
S0260 InvisiMole InvisiMole can enumerate Registry values, keys, and data.26
S0201 JPIN JPIN can enumerate Registry keys.14
G0094 Kimsuky Kimsuky has obtained specific Registry keys and values on a compromised host.97
G0032 Lazarus Group Lazarus Group malware IndiaIndia checks Registry keys within HKCU and HKLM to determine if certain applications are present, including SecureCRT, Terminal Services, RealVNC, TightVNC, UltraVNC, Radmin, mRemote, TeamViewer, FileZilla, pcAnyware, and Remote Desktop. Another Lazarus Group malware sample checks for the presence of the following Registry key:HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Bitcoin\Bitcoin-Qt.106105107
S0513 LiteDuke LiteDuke can query the Registry to check for the presence of HKCU\Software\KasperskyLab.42
S0680 LitePower LitePower can query the Registry for keys added to execute COM hijacking.70
S0532 Lucifer Lucifer can check for existing stratum cryptomining information in HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\spreadCpuXmr – %stratum info%.68
S1060 Mafalda Mafalda can enumerate Registry keys with all subkeys and values.65
S1015 Milan Milan can query HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Cryptography MachineGuid to retrieve the machine GUID.44
S1047 Mori Mori can read data from the Registry including from HKLM\Software\NFC\IPA and
S0385 njRAT njRAT can read specific registry values.94
G0049 OilRig OilRig has used reg query “HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Terminal Server Client\Default” on a victim to query the Registry.103
C0014 Operation Wocao During Operation Wocao, the threat actors executed /c cd /d c:\windows\temp\ & reg query HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\<username>\PuTTY\Sessions\ to detect recent PuTTY sessions, likely to further lateral movement.109
S0165 OSInfo OSInfo queries the registry to look for information about Terminal Services.60
S1050 PcShare PcShare can search the registry files of a compromised host.2
S0517 Pillowmint Pillowmint has used shellcode which reads code stored in the registry keys \REGISTRY\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\DRM using the native Windows API as well as read HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters\Interfaces as part of its C2.17
S0013 PlugX PlugX can enumerate and query for information contained within the Windows Registry.3031
S0145 POWERSOURCE POWERSOURCE queries Registry keys in preparation for setting Run keys to achieve persistence.91
S0194 PowerSploit PowerSploit contains a collection of Privesc-PowerUp modules that can query Registry keys for potential opportunities.34
S0184 POWRUNER POWRUNER may query the Registry by running reg query on a victim.53
S0238 Proxysvc Proxysvc gathers product names from the Registry key: HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion ProductName and the processor description from the Registry key HKLM\HARDWARE\DESCRIPTION\System\CentralProcessor\0 ProcessorNameString.76
S0269 QUADAGENT QUADAGENT checks if a value exists within a Registry key in the HKCU hive whose name is the same as the scheduled task it has created.41
S0241 RATANKBA RATANKBA uses the command reg query “HKCU\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\InternetSettings”.71
S0172 Reaver Reaver queries the Registry to determine the correct Startup path to use for persistence.84
S0075 Reg Reg may be used to gather details from the Windows Registry of a local or remote system at the command-line interface.6
S0496 REvil REvil can query the Registry to get random file extensions to append to encrypted files.48
S0448 Rising Sun Rising Sun has identified the OS product name from a compromised host by searching the registry for SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\Windows NT\ CurrentVersion | ProductName.8
S0240 ROKRAT ROKRAT can access the HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\mssmbios\Data\SMBiosData Registry key to obtain the System manufacturer value to identify the machine type.78
S1018 Saint Bot Saint Bot has used check_registry_keys as part of its environmental checks.38
S0140 Shamoon Shamoon queries several Registry keys to identify hard disk partitions to overwrite.52
S1019 Shark Shark can query HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Cryptography MachineGuid to retrieve the machine GUID.44
S0589 Sibot Sibot has queried the registry for proxy server information.54
S0692 SILENTTRINITY SILENTTRINITY can use the GetRegValue function to check Registry keys within HKCU\Software\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\Installer\AlwaysInstallElevated and HKLM\Software\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\Installer\AlwaysInstallElevated. It also contains additional modules that can check software AutoRun values and use the Win32 namespace to get values from HKCU, HKLM, HKCR, and HKCC hives.5
S0627 SodaMaster SodaMaster has the ability to query the Registry to detect a key specific to VMware.21
G0038 Stealth Falcon Stealth Falcon malware attempts to determine the installed version of .NET by querying the Registry.101
S0380 StoneDrill StoneDrill has looked in the registry to find the default browser path.73
S0603 Stuxnet Stuxnet searches the Registry for indicators of security programs.77
S0559 SUNBURST SUNBURST collected the registry value HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Cryptography\MachineGuid from compromised hosts.39
S1064 SVCReady SVCReady can search for the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\HARDWARE\DESCRIPTION\System Registry key to gather system information.58
S0242 SynAck SynAck enumerates Registry keys associated with event logs.45
S0011 Taidoor Taidoor can query the Registry on compromised hosts using RegQueryValueExA.90
S0560 TEARDROP TEARDROP checked that HKU\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\CTF existed before decoding its embedded payload.3992
G0027 Threat Group-3390 A Threat Group-3390 tool can read and decrypt stored Registry values.99
S0668 TinyTurla TinyTurla can query the Registry for its configuration information.32
G0010 Turla Turla surveys a system upon check-in to discover information in the Windows Registry with the reg query command.66 Turla has also retrieved PowerShell payloads hidden in Registry keys as well as checking keys associated with null session named pipes .102
S0386 Ursnif Ursnif has used Reg to query the Registry for installed programs.1920
S0476 Valak Valak can use the Registry for code updates and to collect credentials.28
S0180 Volgmer Volgmer checks the system for certain Registry keys.29
S0612 WastedLocker WastedLocker checks for specific registry keys related to the UCOMIEnumConnections and IActiveScriptParseProcedure32 interfaces.50
S0579 Waterbear Waterbear can query the Registry key “HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\MSDTC\MTxOCI” to see if the value OracleOcilib exists.72
S0155 WINDSHIELD WINDSHIELD can gather Registry values.23
S1065 Woody RAT Woody RAT can search registry keys to identify antivirus programs on an compromised host.27
S0251 Zebrocy Zebrocy executes the reg query command to obtain information in the Registry.10
S0330 Zeus Panda Zeus Panda checks for the existence of a Registry key and if it contains certain values.57
G0128 ZIRCONIUM ZIRCONIUM has used a tool to query the Registry for proxy settings.100
S0412 ZxShell ZxShell can query the netsvc group value data located in the svchost group Registry key.63
S1013 ZxxZ ZxxZ can search the registry of a compromised host.18


ID Data Source Data Component
DS0017 Command Command Execution
DS0009 Process OS API Execution
DS0024 Windows Registry Windows Registry Key Access


  1. Wikipedia. (n.d.). Windows Registry. Retrieved February 2, 2015. 

  2. Vrabie, V. (2020, November). Dissecting a Chinese APT Targeting South Eastern Asian Government Institutions. Retrieved September 19, 2022. 

  3. PowerShellMafia. (2012, May 26). PowerSploit - A PowerShell Post-Exploitation Framework. Retrieved February 6, 2018. 

  4. PowerSploit. (n.d.). PowerSploit. Retrieved February 6, 2018. 

  5. Salvati, M. (2019, August 6). SILENTTRINITY Modules. Retrieved March 24, 2022. 

  6. Microsoft. (2012, April 17). Reg. Retrieved May 1, 2015. 

  7. Sherstobitoff, R., Saavedra-Morales, J. (2018, February 02). Gold Dragon Widens Olympics Malware Attacks, Gains Permanent Presence on Victims’ Systems. Retrieved June 6, 2018. 

  8. Sherstobitoff, R., Malhotra, A., et. al.. (2018, December 18). Operation Sharpshooter Campaign Targets Global Defense, Critical Infrastructure. Retrieved May 14, 2020. 

  9. Dahan, A. (2017). Operation Cobalt Kitty. Retrieved December 27, 2018. 

  10. ESET Research. (2019, May 22). A journey to Zebrocy land. Retrieved June 20, 2019. 

  11. ESET. (2016, October). En Route with Sednit - Part 2: Observing the Comings and Goings. Retrieved November 21, 2016. 

  12. Bitdefender. (2015, December). APT28 Under the Scope. Retrieved February 23, 2017. 

  13. ClearSky Cyber Security. (2017, December). Charming Kitten. Retrieved December 27, 2017. 

  14. Windows Defender Advanced Threat Hunting Team. (2016, April 29). PLATINUM: Targeted attacks in South and Southeast Asia. Retrieved February 15, 2018. 

  15. FireEye. (2015). APT28: A WINDOW INTO RUSSIA’S CYBER ESPIONAGE OPERATIONS?. Retrieved August 19, 2015. 


  17. Trustwave SpiderLabs. (2020, June 22). Pillowmint: FIN7’s Monkey Thief . Retrieved July 27, 2020. 

  18. Raghuprasad, C . (2022, May 11). Bitter APT adds Bangladesh to their targets. Retrieved June 1, 2022. 

  19. Caragay, R. (2015, March 26). URSNIF: The Multifaceted Malware. Retrieved June 5, 2019. 

  20. Sioting, S. (2013, June 15). BKDR_URSNIF.SM. Retrieved June 5, 2019. 

  21. GREAT. (2021, March 30). APT10: sophisticated multi-layered loader Ecipekac discovered in A41APT campaign. Retrieved June 17, 2021. 

  22. Frankoff, S., Hartley, B. (2018, November 14). Big Game Hunting: The Evolution of INDRIK SPIDER From Dridex Wire Fraud to BitPaymer Targeted Ransomware. Retrieved January 6, 2021. 

  23. Carr, N.. (2017, May 14). Cyber Espionage is Alive and Well: APT32 and the Threat to Global Corporations. Retrieved June 18, 2017. 

  24. FBI, CISA, CNMF, NCSC-UK. (2022, February 24). Iranian Government-Sponsored Actors Conduct Cyber Operations Against Global Government and Commercial Networks. Retrieved September 27, 2022. 

  25. Mercer, W., et al. (2020, March 5). Bisonal: 10 years of play. Retrieved January 26, 2022. 

  26. Hromcová, Z. (2018, June 07). InvisiMole: Surprisingly equipped spyware, undercover since 2013. Retrieved July 10, 2018. 

  27. MalwareBytes Threat Intelligence Team. (2022, August 3). Woody RAT: A new feature-rich malware spotted in the wild. Retrieved December 6, 2022. 

  28. Duncan, B. (2020, July 24). Evolution of Valak, from Its Beginnings to Mass Distribution. Retrieved August 31, 2020. 

  29. US-CERT. (2017, November 01). Malware Analysis Report (MAR) - 10135536-D. Retrieved July 16, 2018. 

  30. Vasilenko, R. (2013, December 17). An Analysis of PlugX Malware. Retrieved November 24, 2015. 

  31. Computer Incident Response Center Luxembourg. (2013, March 29). Analysis of a PlugX variant. Retrieved November 5, 2018. 

  32. Cisco Talos. (2021, September 21). TinyTurla - Turla deploys new malware to keep a secret backdoor on victim machines. Retrieved December 2, 2021. 

  33. Unit 42. (2019, February 22). New BabyShark Malware Targets U.S. National Security Think Tanks. Retrieved October 7, 2019. 

  34. Patil, S. (2018, June 26). Microsoft Office Vulnerabilities Used to Distribute FELIXROOT Backdoor in Recent Campaign. Retrieved July 31, 2018. 

  35. Cherepanov, A. (2018, October). GREYENERGY A successor to BlackEnergy. Retrieved November 15, 2018. 

  36. Cybereason Nocturnus. (2020, July 16). A BAZAR OF TRICKS: FOLLOWING TEAM9’S DEVELOPMENT CYCLES. Retrieved November 18, 2020. 

  37. Pantazopoulos, N. (2020, June 2). In-depth analysis of the new Team9 malware family. Retrieved December 1, 2020. 

  38. Hasherezade. (2021, April 6). A deep dive into Saint Bot, a new downloader. Retrieved June 9, 2022. 

  39. FireEye. (2020, December 13). Highly Evasive Attacker Leverages SolarWinds Supply Chain to Compromise Multiple Global Victims With SUNBURST Backdoor. Retrieved January 4, 2021. 

  40. Dupuy, T. and Faou, M. (2021, June). Gelsemium. Retrieved November 30, 2021. 

  41. Lee, B., Falcone, R. (2018, July 25). OilRig Targets Technology Service Provider and Government Agency with QUADAGENT. Retrieved August 9, 2018. 

  42. Faou, M., Tartare, M., Dupuy, T. (2019, October). OPERATION GHOST. Retrieved September 23, 2020. 

  43. Yan, T., et al. (2018, November 21). New Wine in Old Bottle: New Azorult Variant Found in FindMyName Campaign using Fallout Exploit Kit. Retrieved November 29, 2018. 

  44. Accenture. (2021, November 9). Who are latest targets of cyber group Lyceum?. Retrieved June 16, 2022. 

  45. Ivanov, A. et al. (2018, May 7). SynAck targeted ransomware uses the Doppelgänging technique. Retrieved May 22, 2018. 

  46. Mavis, N. (2020, September 21). The Art and Science of Detecting Cobalt Strike. Retrieved April 6, 2021. 

  47. Strategic Cyber LLC. (2020, November 5). Cobalt Strike: Advanced Threat Tactics for Penetration Testers. Retrieved April 13, 2021. 

  48. Counter Threat Unit Research Team. (2019, September 24). REvil/Sodinokibi Ransomware. Retrieved August 4, 2020. 

  49. Giuliani, M., Allievi, A. (2011, February 28). Carberp - a modular information stealing trojan. Retrieved July 15, 2020. 

  50. Antenucci, S., Pantazopoulos, N., Sandee, M. (2020, June 23). WastedLocker: A New Ransomware Variant Developed By The Evil Corp Group. Retrieved September 14, 2021. 

  51. Smith, S., Stafford, M. (2021, December 14). DarkWatchman: A new evolution in fileless techniques. Retrieved January 10, 2022. 

  52. Falcone, R.. (2016, November 30). Shamoon 2: Return of the Disttrack Wiper. Retrieved January 11, 2017. 

  53. Sardiwal, M, et al. (2017, December 7). New Targeted Attack in the Middle East by APT34, a Suspected Iranian Threat Group, Using CVE-2017-11882 Exploit. Retrieved December 20, 2017. 

  54. Nafisi, R., Lelli, A. (2021, March 4). GoldMax, GoldFinder, and Sibot: Analyzing NOBELIUM’s layered persistence. Retrieved March 8, 2021. 

  55. Bennett, J., Vengerik, B. (2017, June 12). Behind the CARBANAK Backdoor. Retrieved June 11, 2018. 

  56. Huss, D. (2016, March 1). Operation Transparent Tribe. Retrieved June 8, 2016. 

  57. Ebach, L. (2017, June 22). Analysis Results of Zeus.Variant.Panda. Retrieved November 5, 2018. 

  58. Schlapfer, Patrick. (2022, June 6). A New Loader Gets Ready. Retrieved December 13, 2022. 

  59. Grunzweig, J.. (2017, April 20). Cardinal RAT Active for Over Two Years. Retrieved December 8, 2018. 

  60. Symantec Security Response. (2016, September 6). Buckeye cyberespionage group shifts gaze from US to Hong Kong. Retrieved September 26, 2016. 

  61. FireEye Labs. (2015, April). APT30 AND THE MECHANICS OF A LONG-RUNNING CYBER ESPIONAGE OPERATION. Retrieved May 1, 2015. 

  62. Quinn, J. (2019, March 25). The odd case of a Gh0stRAT variant. Retrieved July 15, 2020. 

  63. Allievi, A., et al. (2014, October 28). Threat Spotlight: Group 72, Opening the ZxShell. Retrieved September 24, 2019. 

  64. Salem, A. (2022, April 27). The chronicles of Bumblebee: The Hook, the Bee, and the Trickbot connection. Retrieved September 2, 2022. 

  65. SentinelLabs. (2022, September 22). Metador Technical Appendix. Retrieved April 4, 2023. 

  66. Kaspersky Lab’s Global Research and Analysis Team. (2014, August 7). The Epic Turla Operation: Solving some of the mysteries of Snake/Uroburos. Retrieved December 11, 2014. 

  67. Faou, M. (2020, May). From Agent.btz to ComRAT v4: A ten-year journey. Retrieved June 15, 2020. 

  68. Hsu, K. et al. (2020, June 24). Lucifer: New Cryptojacking and DDoS Hybrid Malware Exploiting High and Critical Vulnerabilities to Infect Windows Devices. Retrieved November 16, 2020. 

  69. US-CERT. (2019, April 10). MAR-10135536-8 – North Korean Trojan: HOPLIGHT. Retrieved April 19, 2019. 

  70. Yamout, M. (2021, November 29). WIRTE’s campaign in the Middle East ‘living off the land’ since at least 2019. Retrieved February 1, 2022. 

  71. Trend Micro. (2017, February 27). RATANKBA: Delving into Large-scale Watering Holes against Enterprises. Retrieved May 22, 2018. 

  72. Su, V. et al. (2019, December 11). Waterbear Returns, Uses API Hooking to Evade Security. Retrieved February 22, 2021. 

  73. Kaspersky Lab. (2017, March 7). From Shamoon to StoneDrill: Wipers attacking Saudi organizations and beyond. Retrieved March 14, 2019. 

  74. Chen, T. and Chen, Z. (2020, February 17). CLAMBLING - A New Backdoor Base On Dropbox. Retrieved November 12, 2021. 

  75. Lunghi, D. et al. (2020, February). Uncovering DRBControl. Retrieved November 12, 2021. 

  76. Sherstobitoff, R., Malhotra, A. (2018, April 24). Analyzing Operation GhostSecret: Attack Seeks to Steal Data Worldwide. Retrieved May 16, 2018. 

  77. Nicolas Falliere, Liam O Murchu, Eric Chien 2011, February W32.Stuxnet Dossier (Version 1.4) Retrieved. 2017/09/22  

  78. Mercer, W., Rascagneres, P. (2018, January 16). Korea In The Crosshairs. Retrieved May 21, 2018. 

  79. FinFisher. (n.d.). Retrieved December 20, 2017. 

  80. Allievi, A.,Flori, E. (2018, March 01). FinFisher exposed: A researcher’s tale of defeating traps, tricks, and complex virtual machines. Retrieved July 9, 2018. 

  81. Harbison, M. (2021, February 9). BendyBear: Novel Chinese Shellcode Linked With Cyber Espionage Group BlackTech. Retrieved February 16, 2021. 

  82. Check Point. (2022, January 11). APT35 exploits Log4j vulnerability to distribute new modular PowerShell toolkit. Retrieved January 24, 2022. 

  83. US-CERT. (2017, December 13). Malware Analysis Report (MAR) - 10135536-B. Retrieved July 17, 2018. 

  84. Grunzweig, J. and Miller-Osborn, J. (2017, November 10). New Malware with Ties to SunOrcal Discovered. Retrieved November 16, 2017. 

  85. ESET. (2017, March 30). Carbon Paper: Peering into Turla’s second stage backdoor. Retrieved November 7, 2018. 

  86. Anton Cherepanov. (2017, June 12). Win32/Industroyer: A new threat for industrial controls systems. Retrieved December 18, 2020. 

  87. Symantec Security Response. (2010, January 18). The Trojan.Hydraq Incident. Retrieved February 20, 2018. 

  88. Lelli, A. (2010, January 11). Trojan.Hydraq. Retrieved February 20, 2018. 

  89. FireEye. (2018, March 16). Suspected Chinese Cyber Espionage Group (TEMP.Periscope) Targeting U.S. Engineering and Maritime Industries. Retrieved April 11, 2018. 

  90. CISA, FBI, DOD. (2021, August). MAR-10292089-1.v2 – Chinese Remote Access Trojan: TAIDOOR. Retrieved August 24, 2021. 

  91. Brumaghin, E. and Grady, C.. (2017, March 2). Covert Channels and Poor Decisions: The Tale of DNSMessenger. Retrieved March 8, 2017. 

  92. MSTIC, CDOC, 365 Defender Research Team. (2021, January 20). Deep dive into the Solorigate second-stage activation: From SUNBURST to TEARDROP and Raindrop . Retrieved January 22, 2021. 

  93. Hod Gavriel. (2019, November 21). Dtrack: In-depth analysis of APT on a nuclear power plant. Retrieved January 20, 2021. 

  94. Pascual, C. (2018, November 27). AutoIt-Compiled Worm Affecting Removable Media Delivers Fileless Version of BLADABINDI/njRAT Backdoor. Retrieved June 4, 2019. 

  95. CISA. (2020, September 15). Iran-Based Threat Actor Exploits VPN Vulnerabilities. Retrieved December 21, 2020. 

  96. Dumont, R. (2019, March 20). Fake or Fake: Keeping up with OceanLotus decoys. Retrieved April 1, 2019. 

  97. An, J and Malhotra, A. (2021, November 10). North Korean attackers use malicious blogs to deliver malware to high-profile South Korean targets. Retrieved December 29, 2021. 

  98. US-CERT. (2018, March 16). Alert (TA18-074A): Russian Government Cyber Activity Targeting Energy and Other Critical Infrastructure Sectors. Retrieved June 6, 2018. 

  99. Pantazopoulos, N., Henry T. (2018, May 18). Emissary Panda – A potential new malicious tool. Retrieved June 25, 2018. 

  100. Singh, S. and Antil, S. (2020, October 27). APT-31 Leverages COVID-19 Vaccine Theme and Abuses Legitimate Online Services. Retrieved March 24, 2021. 

  101. Marczak, B. and Scott-Railton, J.. (2016, May 29). Keep Calm and (Don’t) Enable Macros: A New Threat Actor Targets UAE Dissidents. Retrieved June 8, 2016. 

  102. Faou, M. and Dumont R.. (2019, May 29). A dive into Turla PowerShell usage. Retrieved June 14, 2019. 

  103. Falcone, R. and Lee, B.. (2016, May 26). The OilRig Campaign: Attacks on Saudi Arabian Organizations Deliver Helminth Backdoor. Retrieved May 3, 2017. 

  104. Jansen, W . (2021, January 12). Abusing cloud services to fly under the radar. Retrieved January 19, 2021. 

  105. Novetta Threat Research Group. (2016, February 24). Operation Blockbuster: Loaders, Installers and Uninstallers Report. Retrieved March 2, 2016. 

  106. Novetta Threat Research Group. (2016, February 24). Operation Blockbuster: Unraveling the Long Thread of the Sony Attack. Retrieved February 25, 2016. 

  107. Sherstobitoff, R. (2018, February 12). Lazarus Resurfaces, Targets Global Banks and Bitcoin Users. Retrieved February 19, 2018. 

  108. FBI. (2020, September 17). Indicators of Compromise Associated with Rana Intelligence Computing, also known as Advanced Persistent Threat 39, Chafer, Cadelspy, Remexi, and ITG07. Retrieved December 10, 2020. 

  109. Dantzig, M. v., Schamper, E. (2019, December 19). Operation Wocao: Shining a light on one of China’s hidden hacking groups. Retrieved October 8, 2020.