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T1014 Rootkit

Adversaries may use rootkits to hide the presence of programs, files, network connections, services, drivers, and other system components. Rootkits are programs that hide the existence of malware by intercepting/hooking and modifying operating system API calls that supply system information. 3

Rootkits or rootkit enabling functionality may reside at the user or kernel level in the operating system or lower, to include a hypervisor, Master Boot Record, or System Firmware. 4 Rootkits have been seen for Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X systems. 1 2

Item Value
ID T1014
Tactics TA0005
Platforms Linux, Windows, macOS
Version 1.1
Created 31 May 2017
Last Modified 30 March 2023

Procedure Examples

ID Name Description
G0007 APT28 APT28 has used a UEFI (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface) rootkit known as LoJax.2714
G0096 APT41 APT41 deployed rootkits on Linux systems.2928
S0484 Carberp Carberp has used user mode rootkit techniques to remain hidden on the system.15
S0572 Caterpillar WebShell Caterpillar WebShell has a module to use a rootkit on a system.22
S0502 Drovorub Drovorub has used a kernel module rootkit to hide processes, files, executables, and network artifacts from user space view.19
S0377 Ebury Ebury has used user mode rootkit techniques to remain hidden on the system.9
S0047 Hacking Team UEFI Rootkit Hacking Team UEFI Rootkit is a UEFI BIOS rootkit developed by the company Hacking Team to persist remote access software on some targeted systems.25
S0394 HiddenWasp HiddenWasp uses a rootkit to hook and implement functions on the system.7
S0135 HIDEDRV HIDEDRV is a rootkit that hides certain operating system artifacts.21
S0009 Hikit Hikit is a Rootkit that has been used by Axiom.23 24
S0601 Hildegard Hildegard has modified /etc/ to overwrite readdir() and readdir64().17
S0040 HTRAN HTRAN can install a rootkit to hide network connections from the host OS.5
S0397 LoJax LoJax is a UEFI BIOS rootkit deployed to persist remote access software on some targeted systems.14
S0012 PoisonIvy PoisonIvy starts a rootkit from a malicious file dropped to disk.12
S0458 Ramsay Ramsay has included a rootkit to evade defenses.18
G0106 Rocke Rocke has modified /etc/ to hook libc functions in order to hide the installed dropper and mining software in process lists.30
S0468 Skidmap Skidmap is a kernel-mode rootkit that has the ability to hook system calls to hide specific files and fake network and CPU-related statistics to make the CPU load of the infected machine always appear low.10
S0603 Stuxnet Stuxnet uses a Windows rootkit to mask its binaries and other relevant files.6
G0139 TeamTNT TeamTNT has used rootkits such as the open-source Diamorphine rootkit and their custom bots to hide cryptocurrency mining activities on the machine.32 31
S0221 Umbreon Umbreon hides from defenders by hooking libc function calls, hiding artifacts that would reveal its presence, such as the user account it creates to provide access and undermining strace, a tool often used to identify malware.16
S0022 Uroburos Uroburos is a rootkit used by Turla.11
S0670 WarzoneRAT WarzoneRAT can include a rootkit to hide processes, files, and startup.20
S0430 Winnti for Linux Winnti for Linux has used a modified copy of the open-source userland rootkit Azazel, named, to hide the malware’s operations and network activity.13
G0044 Winnti Group Winnti Group used a rootkit to modify typical server functionality.26
S0027 Zeroaccess Zeroaccess is a kernel-mode rootkit.8


ID Data Source Data Component
DS0016 Drive Drive Modification
DS0022 File File Modification
DS0001 Firmware Firmware Modification


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  2. Pan, M., Tsai, S. (2014). You can’t see me: A Mac OS X Rootkit uses the tricks you haven’t known yet. Retrieved December 21, 2017. 

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  6. Nicolas Falliere, Liam O Murchu, Eric Chien 2011, February W32.Stuxnet Dossier (Version 1.4) Retrieved. 2017/09/22  

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  10. Remillano, A., Urbanec, J. (2019, September 19). Skidmap Linux Malware Uses Rootkit Capabilities to Hide Cryptocurrency-Mining Payload. Retrieved June 4, 2020. 

  11. Kaspersky Lab’s Global Research and Analysis Team. (2014, August 7). The Epic Turla Operation: Solving some of the mysteries of Snake/Uroburos. Retrieved December 11, 2014. 

  12. Hayashi, K. (2005, August 18). Backdoor.Darkmoon. Retrieved February 23, 2018. 

  13. Chronicle Blog. (2019, May 15). Winnti: More than just Windows and Gates. Retrieved April 29, 2020. 

  14. ESET. (2018, September). LOJAX First UEFI rootkit found in the wild, courtesy of the Sednit group. Retrieved July 2, 2019. 

  15. Giuliani, M., Allievi, A. (2011, February 28). Carberp - a modular information stealing trojan. Retrieved July 15, 2020. 

  16. Fernando Mercês. (2016, September 5). Pokémon-themed Umbreon Linux Rootkit Hits x86, ARM Systems. Retrieved March 5, 2018. 

  17. Chen, J. et al. (2021, February 3). Hildegard: New TeamTNT Cryptojacking Malware Targeting Kubernetes. Retrieved April 5, 2021. 

  18. Sanmillan, I.. (2020, May 13). Ramsay: A cyber‑espionage toolkit tailored for air‑gapped networks. Retrieved May 27, 2020. 

  19. NSA/FBI. (2020, August). Russian GRU 85th GTsSS Deploys Previously Undisclosed Drovorub Malware. Retrieved August 25, 2020. 

  20. Harakhavik, Y. (2020, February 3). Warzone: Behind the enemy lines. Retrieved December 17, 2021. 

  21. ESET. (2016, October). En Route with Sednit - Part 3: A Mysterious Downloader. Retrieved November 21, 2016. 

  22. ClearSky Cyber Security. (2021, January). “Lebanese Cedar” APT Global Lebanese Espionage Campaign Leveraging Web Servers. Retrieved February 10, 2021. 

  23. Glyer, C., Kazanciyan, R. (2012, August 20). The “Hikit” Rootkit: Advanced and Persistent Attack Techniques (Part 1). Retrieved June 6, 2016. 

  24. Glyer, C., Kazanciyan, R. (2012, August 22). The “Hikit” Rootkit: Advanced and Persistent Attack Techniques (Part 2). Retrieved May 4, 2020. 

  25. Lin, P. (2015, July 13). Hacking Team Uses UEFI BIOS Rootkit to Keep RCS 9 Agent in Target Systems. Retrieved December 11, 2015. 

  26. Kaspersky Lab’s Global Research and Analysis Team. (2013, April 11). Winnti. More than just a game. Retrieved February 8, 2017. 

  27. Symantec Security Response. (2018, October 04). APT28: New Espionage Operations Target Military and Government Organizations. Retrieved November 14, 2018. 

  28. Crowdstrike. (2020, March 2). 2020 Global Threat Report. Retrieved December 11, 2020. 

  29. Fraser, N., et al. (2019, August 7). Double DragonAPT41, a dual espionage and cyber crime operation APT41. Retrieved September 23, 2019. 

  30. Anomali Labs. (2019, March 15). Rocke Evolves Its Arsenal With a New Malware Family Written in Golang. Retrieved April 24, 2019. 

  31. Darin Smith. (2022, April 21). TeamTNT targeting AWS, Alibaba. Retrieved August 4, 2022. 

  32. Fiser, D. Oliveira, A. (n.d.). Tracking the Activities of TeamTNT A Closer Look at a Cloud-Focused Malicious Actor Group. Retrieved September 22, 2021.