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T1481 Web Service

Adversaries may use an existing, legitimate external Web service as a means for relaying data to/from a compromised system. Popular websites and social media, acting as a mechanism for C2, may give a significant amount of cover. This is due to the likelihood that hosts within a network are already communicating with them prior to a compromise. Using common services, such as those offered by Google or Twitter, makes it easier for adversaries to hide in expected noise. Web service providers commonly use SSL/TLS encryption, giving adversaries an added level of protection.

Use of Web services may also protect back-end C2 infrastructure from discovery through malware binary analysis, or enable operational resiliency (since this infrastructure may be dynamically changed).

Item Value
ID T1481
Sub-techniques T1481.001, T1481.002, T1481.003
Tactics TA0037
Platforms Android, iOS
Version 1.2
Created 01 February 2019
Last Modified 20 March 2023


ID Data Source Data Component
DS0041 Application Vetting Network Communication