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T1217 Browser Information Discovery

Adversaries may enumerate information about browsers to learn more about compromised environments. Data saved by browsers (such as bookmarks, accounts, and browsing history) may reveal a variety of personal information about users (e.g., banking sites, relationships/interests, social media, etc.) as well as details about internal network resources such as servers, tools/dashboards, or other related infrastructure.2

Browser information may also highlight additional targets after an adversary has access to valid credentials, especially Credentials In Files associated with logins cached by a browser.

Specific storage locations vary based on platform and/or application, but browser information is typically stored in local files and databases (e.g., %APPDATA%/Google/Chrome).1

Item Value
ID T1217
Tactics TA0007
Platforms Linux, Windows, macOS
Version 2.0
Created 18 April 2018
Last Modified 16 April 2023

Procedure Examples

ID Name Description
G0082 APT38 APT38 has collected browser bookmark information to learn more about compromised hosts, obtain personal information about users, and acquire details about internal network resources.16
S0274 Calisto Calisto collects information on bookmarks from Google Chrome.4
G0114 Chimera Chimera has used type \\c$\Users\\Favorites\Links\Bookmarks bar\Imported From IE*citrix* for bookmark discovery.17
S0673 DarkWatchman DarkWatchman can retrieve browser history.13
S0567 Dtrack Dtrack can retrieve browser history.89
S0363 Empire Empire has the ability to gather browser data such as bookmarks and visited sites.3
G0117 Fox Kitten Fox Kitten has used Google Chrome bookmarks to identify internal resources and assets.15
S0681 Lizar Lizar can retrieve browser history and database files.76
S0409 Machete Machete retrieves the user profile data (e.g., browsers) from Chrome and Firefox browsers.11
S1060 Mafalda Mafalda can collect the contents of the %USERPROFILE%\AppData\Local\Google\Chrome\User Data\LocalState file.12
S0079 MobileOrder MobileOrder has a command to upload to its C2 server victim browser bookmarks.5
S1012 PowerLess PowerLess has a browser info stealer module that can read Chrome and Edge browser database files.10
S1042 SUGARDUMP SUGARDUMP has collected browser bookmark and history information.14


ID Data Source Data Component
DS0017 Command Command Execution
DS0022 File File Access
DS0009 Process Process Creation


  1. Chrome Enterprise and Education Help. (n.d.). Use Chrome Browser with Roaming User Profiles. Retrieved March 28, 2023. 

  2. Golubev, S. (n.d.). How malware steals autofill data from browsers. Retrieved March 28, 2023. 

  3. Schroeder, W., Warner, J., Nelson, M. (n.d.). Github PowerShellEmpire. Retrieved April 28, 2016. 

  4. Kuzin, M., Zelensky S. (2018, July 20). Calisto Trojan for macOS. Retrieved September 7, 2018. 

  5. Falcone, R. and Miller-Osborn, J.. (2016, January 24). Scarlet Mimic: Years-Long Espionage Campaign Targets Minority Activists. Retrieved February 10, 2016. 

  6. BI.ZONE Cyber Threats Research Team. (2021, May 13). From pentest to APT attack: cybercriminal group FIN7 disguises its malware as an ethical hacker’s toolkit. Retrieved February 2, 2022. 

  7. Seals, T. (2021, May 14). FIN7 Backdoor Masquerades as Ethical Hacking Tool. Retrieved February 2, 2022. 

  8. Konstantin Zykov. (2019, September 23). Hello! My name is Dtrack. Retrieved January 20, 2021. 

  9. Hod Gavriel. (2019, November 21). Dtrack: In-depth analysis of APT on a nuclear power plant. Retrieved January 20, 2021. 

  10. Cybereason Nocturnus. (2022, February 1). PowerLess Trojan: Iranian APT Phosphorus Adds New PowerShell Backdoor for Espionage. Retrieved June 1, 2022. 

  11. ESET. (2019, July). MACHETE JUST GOT SHARPER Venezuelan government institutions under attack. Retrieved September 13, 2019. 

  12. Ehrlich, A., et al. (2022, September). THE MYSTERY OF METADOR | AN UNATTRIBUTED THREAT HIDING IN TELCOS, ISPS, AND UNIVERSITIES. Retrieved January 23, 2023. 

  13. Smith, S., Stafford, M. (2021, December 14). DarkWatchman: A new evolution in fileless techniques. Retrieved January 10, 2022. 

  14. Mandiant Israel Research Team. (2022, August 17). Suspected Iranian Actor Targeting Israeli Shipping, Healthcare, Government and Energy Sectors. Retrieved September 21, 2022. 

  15. CISA. (2020, September 15). Iran-Based Threat Actor Exploits VPN Vulnerabilities. Retrieved December 21, 2020. 

  16. DHS/CISA. (2020, August 26). FASTCash 2.0: North Korea’s BeagleBoyz Robbing Banks. Retrieved September 29, 2021. 

  17. Jansen, W . (2021, January 12). Abusing cloud services to fly under the radar. Retrieved January 19, 2021.