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T1055 Process Injection

Adversaries may inject code into processes in order to evade process-based defenses as well as possibly elevate privileges. Process injection is a method of executing arbitrary code in the address space of a separate live process. Running code in the context of another process may allow access to the process’s memory, system/network resources, and possibly elevated privileges. Execution via process injection may also evade detection from security products since the execution is masked under a legitimate process.

There are many different ways to inject code into a process, many of which abuse legitimate functionalities. These implementations exist for every major OS but are typically platform specific.

More sophisticated samples may perform multiple process injections to segment modules and further evade detection, utilizing named pipes or other inter-process communication (IPC) mechanisms as a communication channel.

Item Value
ID T1055
Sub-techniques T1055.001, T1055.002, T1055.003, T1055.004, T1055.005, T1055.008, T1055.009, T1055.011, T1055.012, T1055.013, T1055.014, T1055.015
Tactics TA0005, TA0004
Platforms Linux, Windows, macOS
Version 1.3
Created 31 May 2017
Last Modified 30 March 2023

Procedure Examples

ID Name Description
S0469 ABK ABK has the ability to inject shellcode into svchost.exe.20
S0331 Agent Tesla Agent Tesla can inject into known, vulnerable binaries on targeted hosts.49
G0050 APT32 APT32 malware has injected a Cobalt Strike beacon into Rundll32.exe.69
G0067 APT37 APT37 injects its malware variant, ROKRAT, into the cmd.exe process.74
G0096 APT41 APT41 malware TIDYELF loaded the main WINTERLOVE component by injecting it into the iexplore.exe process.71
S0438 Attor Attor‘s dispatcher can inject itself into running processes to gain higher privileges and to evade detection.55
S0347 AuditCred AuditCred can inject code from files to other running processes.25
S0473 Avenger Avenger has the ability to inject shellcode into svchost.exe.20
S0093 Backdoor.Oldrea Backdoor.Oldrea injects itself into explorer.exe.3536
S0534 Bazar Bazar can inject code through calling VirtualAllocExNuma.62
S0470 BBK BBK has the ability to inject shellcode into svchost.exe.20
S1039 Bumblebee Bumblebee can inject code into multiple processes on infected endpoints.37
S0348 Cardinal RAT Cardinal RAT injects into a newly spawned process created from a native Windows executable.43
S0660 Clambling Clambling can inject into the svchost.exe process for execution.60
G0080 Cobalt Group Cobalt Group has injected code into trusted processes.73
S0154 Cobalt Strike Cobalt Strike can inject a variety of payloads into processes dynamically chosen by the adversary.404139
S0614 CostaBricks CostaBricks can inject a payload into the memory of a compromised host.22
S0695 Donut Donut includes a subproject DonutTest to inject shellcode into a target process.14
S0024 Dyre Dyre has the ability to directly inject its code into the web browser process.21
S0554 Egregor Egregor can inject its payload into iexplore.exe process.38
S0363 Empire Empire contains multiple modules for injecting into processes, such as Invoke-PSInject.13
S0168 Gazer Gazer injects its communication module into an Internet accessible process through which it performs C2.6667
S0032 gh0st RAT gh0st RAT can inject malicious code into process created by the “Command_Create&Inject” function.50
S0561 GuLoader GuLoader has the ability to inject shellcode into a donor processes that is started in a suspended state. GuLoader has previously used RegAsm as a donor process.64
S0376 HOPLIGHT HOPLIGHT has injected into running processes.33
S0040 HTRAN HTRAN can inject into into running processes.11
S0398 HyperBro HyperBro can run shellcode it injects into a newly created process.32
S0260 InvisiMole InvisiMole can inject itself into another process to avoid detection including use of a technique called ListPlanting that customizes the sorting algorithm in a ListView structure.46
S0581 IronNetInjector IronNetInjector can use an IronPython scripts to load a .NET injector to inject a payload into its own or a remote process.12
S0044 JHUHUGIT JHUHUGIT performs code injection injecting its own functions to browser processes.5657
S0201 JPIN JPIN can inject content into lsass.exe to load a module.24
G0094 Kimsuky Kimsuky has used Win7Elevate to inject malicious code into explorer.exe.70
S0681 Lizar Lizar can migrate the loader into another process.59
S1059 metaMain metaMain can inject the loader file, Speech02.db, into a process.61
S0084 Mis-Type Mis-Type has been injected directly into a running process, including explorer.exe.52
S0247 NavRAT NavRAT copies itself into a running Internet Explorer process to evade detection.53
S0198 NETWIRE NETWIRE can inject code into system processes including notepad.exe, svchost.exe, and vbc.exe.18
C0013 Operation Sharpshooter During Operation Sharpshooter, threat actors leveraged embedded shellcode to inject a downloader into the memory of Word.77
C0014 Operation Wocao During Operation Wocao, threat actors injected code into a selected process, which in turn launches a command as a child process of the original.76
S0664 Pandora Pandora can start and inject code into a new svchost process.54
S1050 PcShare The PcShare payload has been injected into the logagent.exe and rdpclip.exe processes.17
G0068 PLATINUM PLATINUM has used various methods of process injection including hot patching.24
S0378 PoshC2 PoshC2 contains multiple modules for injecting into processes, such as Invoke-PSInject.16
S0650 QakBot QakBot can inject itself into processes including explore.exe, Iexplore.exe, Mobsync.exe., and wermgr.exe.2829302726
S0332 Remcos Remcos has a command to hide itself through injecting into another process.8
S0496 REvil REvil can inject itself into running processes on a compromised host.42
S0240 ROKRAT ROKRAT can use VirtualAlloc, WriteProcessMemory, and then CreateRemoteThread to execute shellcode within the address space of Notepad.exe.58
S0446 Ryuk Ryuk has injected itself into remote processes to encrypt files using a combination of VirtualAlloc, WriteProcessMemory, and CreateRemoteThread.68
S0596 ShadowPad ShadowPad has injected an install module into a newly created process.19
G0091 Silence Silence has injected a DLL library containing a Trojan into the fwmain32.exe process.75
S0692 SILENTTRINITY SILENTTRINITY can inject shellcode directly into Excel.exe or a specific process.15
S0633 Sliver Sliver can inject code into local and remote processes.910
S0533 SLOTHFULMEDIA SLOTHFULMEDIA can inject into running processes on a compromised host.34
S0226 Smoke Loader Smoke Loader injects into the Internet Explorer process.44
S0380 StoneDrill StoneDrill has relied on injecting its payload directly into the process memory of the victim’s preferred browser.65
S0266 TrickBot TrickBot has used Nt* Native API functions to inject code into legitimate processes such as wermgr.exe.63
S0436 TSCookie TSCookie has the ability to inject code into the svchost.exe, iexplorer.exe, explorer.exe, and default browser processes.51
G0010 Turla Turla has also used PowerSploit‘s Invoke-ReflectivePEInjection.ps1 to reflectively load a PowerShell payload into a random process on the victim system.72
S0670 WarzoneRAT WarzoneRAT has the ability to inject malicious DLLs into a specific process for privilege escalation.45
S0579 Waterbear Waterbear can inject decrypted shellcode into the LanmanServer service.23
S0206 Wiarp Wiarp creates a backdoor through which remote attackers can inject files into running processes.47
S0176 Wingbird Wingbird performs multiple process injections to hijack system processes and execute malicious code.48
S1065 Woody RAT Woody RAT can inject code into a targeted process by writing to the remote memory of an infected system and then create a remote thread.31


ID Mitigation Description
M1040 Behavior Prevention on Endpoint Some endpoint security solutions can be configured to block some types of process injection based on common sequences of behavior that occur during the injection process. For example, on Windows 10, Attack Surface Reduction (ASR) rules may prevent Office applications from code injection. 7
M1026 Privileged Account Management Utilize Yama (ex: /proc/sys/kernel/yama/ptrace_scope) to mitigate ptrace based process injection by restricting the use of ptrace to privileged users only. Other mitigation controls involve the deployment of security kernel modules that provide advanced access control and process restrictions such as SELinux, grsecurity, and AppArmor.


ID Data Source Data Component
DS0022 File File Metadata
DS0011 Module Module Load
DS0009 Process OS API Execution


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