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T1556.004 Network Device Authentication

Adversaries may use Patch System Image to hard code a password in the operating system, thus bypassing of native authentication mechanisms for local accounts on network devices.

Modify System Image may include implanted code to the operating system for network devices to provide access for adversaries using a specific password. The modification includes a specific password which is implanted in the operating system image via the patch. Upon authentication attempts, the inserted code will first check to see if the user input is the password. If so, access is granted. Otherwise, the implanted code will pass the credentials on for verification of potentially valid credentials.1

Item Value
ID T1556.004
Sub-techniques T1556.001, T1556.002, T1556.003, T1556.004, T1556.005, T1556.006, T1556.007, T1556.008
Tactics TA0006, TA0005, TA0003
Platforms Network
Permissions required Administrator
Version 2.0
Created 19 October 2020
Last Modified 14 December 2021

Procedure Examples

ID Name Description
S0519 SYNful Knock SYNful Knock has the capability to add its own custom backdoor password when it modifies the operating system of the affected network device.1


ID Mitigation Description
M1032 Multi-factor Authentication Use multi-factor authentication for user and privileged accounts. Most embedded network devices support TACACS+ and/or RADIUS. Follow vendor prescribed best practices for hardening access control. 4
M1026 Privileged Account Management Restrict administrator accounts to as few individuals as possible, following least privilege principles. Prevent credential overlap across systems of administrator and privileged accounts, particularly between network and non-network platforms, such as servers or endpoints.


ID Data Source Data Component
DS0022 File File Modification