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M1047 Audit

Perform audits or scans of systems, permissions, insecure software, insecure configurations, etc. to identify potential weaknesses.

Item Value
ID M1047
Version 1.1
Created 11 June 2019
Last Modified 19 November 2020
Navigation Layer View In ATT&CK® Navigator

Techniques Addressed by Mitigation

Domain ID Name Use
enterprise T1548 Abuse Elevation Control Mechanism Check for common UAC bypass weaknesses on Windows systems to be aware of the risk posture and address issues where appropriate.1
enterprise T1548.002 Bypass User Account Control Check for common UAC bypass weaknesses on Windows systems to be aware of the risk posture and address issues where appropriate.1
enterprise T1087 Account Discovery -
enterprise T1087.004 Cloud Account Routinely check user permissions to ensure only the expected users have the ability to list IAM identities or otherwise discover cloud accounts.
enterprise T1560 Archive Collected Data System scans can be performed to identify unauthorized archival utilities.
enterprise T1560.001 Archive via Utility System scans can be performed to identify unauthorized archival utilities.
enterprise T1176 Browser Extensions Ensure extensions that are installed are the intended ones as many malicious extensions will masquerade as legitimate ones.
enterprise T1612 Build Image on Host Audit images deployed within the environment to ensure they do not contain any malicious components.
enterprise T1059 Command and Scripting Interpreter -
enterprise T1059.006 Python Inventory systems for unauthorized Python installations.
enterprise T1543 Create or Modify System Process Use auditing tools capable of detecting privilege and service abuse opportunities on systems within an enterprise and correct them.
enterprise T1543.003 Windows Service Use auditing tools capable of detecting privilege and service abuse opportunities on systems within an enterprise and correct them.
enterprise T1543.004 Launch Daemon Use auditing tools capable of detecting folder permissions abuse opportunities on systems, especially reviewing changes made to folders by third-party software.
enterprise T1530 Data from Cloud Storage Object Frequently check permissions on cloud storage to ensure proper permissions are set to deny open or unprivileged access to resources.17
enterprise T1213 Data from Information Repositories Consider periodic review of accounts and privileges for critical and sensitive repositories.
enterprise T1213.001 Confluence Consider periodic review of accounts and privileges for critical and sensitive Confluence repositories.
enterprise T1213.002 Sharepoint Consider periodic review of accounts and privileges for critical and sensitive SharePoint repositories.
enterprise T1213.003 Code Repositories Consider periodic reviews of accounts and privileges for critical and sensitive code repositories. Scan code repositories for exposed credentials or other sensitive information.
enterprise T1610 Deploy Container Scan images before deployment, and block those that are not in compliance with security policies. In Kubernetes environments, the admission controller can be used to validate images after a container deployment request is authenticated but before the container is deployed.12
enterprise T1484 Domain Policy Modification Identify and correct GPO permissions abuse opportunities (ex: GPO modification privileges) using auditing tools such as BloodHound (version 1.5.1 and later)16.
enterprise T1484.001 Group Policy Modification Identify and correct GPO permissions abuse opportunities (ex: GPO modification privileges) using auditing tools such as BloodHound (version 1.5.1 and later).16
enterprise T1482 Domain Trust Discovery Map the trusts within existing domains/forests and keep trust relationships to a minimum.
enterprise T1114 Email Collection Enterprise email solutions have monitoring mechanisms that may include the ability to audit auto-forwarding rules on a regular basis.
enterprise T1114.003 Email Forwarding Rule Enterprise email solutions have monitoring mechanisms that may include the ability to audit auto-forwarding rules on a regular basis.
enterprise T1546 Event Triggered Execution -
enterprise T1546.006 LC_LOAD_DYLIB Addition Binaries can also be baselined for what dynamic libraries they require, and if an app requires a new dynamic library that wasn\u2019t included as part of an update, it should be investigated.
enterprise T1606 Forge Web Credentials Administrators should perform an audit of all access lists and the permissions they have been granted to access web applications and services. This should be done extensively on all resources in order to establish a baseline, followed up on with periodic audits of new or updated resources. Suspicious accounts/credentials should be investigated and removed.

Enable advanced auditing on ADFS. Check the success and failure audit options in the ADFS Management snap-in. Enable Audit Application Generated events on the AD FS farm via Group Policy Object.18 | | enterprise | T1606.001 | Web Cookies | Administrators should perform an audit of all access lists and the permissions they have been granted to access web applications and services. This should be done extensively on all resources in order to establish a baseline, followed up on with periodic audits of new or updated resources. Suspicious accounts/credentials should be investigated and removed. | | enterprise | T1606.002 | SAML Tokens | Enable advanced auditing on AD FS. Check the success and failure audit options in the AD FS Management snap-in. Enable Audit Application Generated events on the AD FS farm via Group Policy Object.18 | | enterprise | T1564 | Hide Artifacts | - | | enterprise | T1564.008 | Email Hiding Rules | Enterprise email solutions may have monitoring mechanisms that may include the ability to audit inbox rules on a regular basis. | | enterprise | T1574 | Hijack Execution Flow | Use auditing tools capable of detecting hijacking opportunities on systems within an enterprise and correct them. Toolkits like the PowerSploit framework contain PowerUp modules that can be used to explore systems for hijacking weaknesses.7 | | enterprise | T1574.001 | DLL Search Order Hijacking | Use auditing tools capable of detecting DLL search order hijacking opportunities on systems within an enterprise and correct them. Toolkits like the PowerSploit framework contain PowerUp modules that can be used to explore systems for DLL hijacking weaknesses.7 | | enterprise | T1574.005 | Executable Installer File Permissions Weakness | Use auditing tools capable of detecting file system permissions abuse opportunities on systems within an enterprise and correct them. Toolkits like the PowerSploit framework contain PowerUp modules that can be used to explore systems for service file system permissions weaknesses.7 | | enterprise | T1574.007 | Path Interception by PATH Environment Variable | Find and eliminate path interception weaknesses in program configuration files, scripts, the PATH environment variable, services, and in shortcuts by surrounding PATH variables with quotation marks when functions allow for them. Be aware of the search order Windows uses for executing or loading binaries and use fully qualified paths wherever appropriate. | | enterprise | T1574.008 | Path Interception by Search Order Hijacking | Find and eliminate path interception weaknesses in program configuration files, scripts, the PATH environment variable, services, and in shortcuts by surrounding PATH variables with quotation marks when functions allow for them. Be aware of the search order Windows uses for executing or loading binaries and use fully qualified paths wherever appropriate. | | enterprise | T1574.009 | Path Interception by Unquoted Path | Find and eliminate path interception weaknesses in program configuration files, scripts, the PATH environment variable, services, and in shortcuts by surrounding PATH variables with quotation marks when functions allow for them. Be aware of the search order Windows uses for executing or loading binaries and use fully qualified paths wherever appropriate. | | enterprise | T1574.010 | Services File Permissions Weakness | Use auditing tools capable of detecting file system permissions abuse opportunities on systems within an enterprise and correct them. Toolkits like the PowerSploit framework contain PowerUp modules that can be used to explore systems for service file system permissions weaknesses.7 | | enterprise | T1562 | Impair Defenses | - | | enterprise | T1562.002 | Disable Windows Event Logging | Consider periodic review of auditpol settings for Administrator accounts and perform dynamic baselining on SIEM(s) to investigate potential malicious activity. Also ensure that the EventLog service and its threads are properly running. | | enterprise | T1562.007 | Disable or Modify Cloud Firewall | Routinely check account role permissions to ensure only expected users and roles have permission to modify cloud firewalls. | | enterprise | T1525 | Implant Internal Image | Periodically check the integrity of images and containers used in cloud deployments to ensure they have not been modified to include malicious software. | | enterprise | T1578 | Modify Cloud Compute Infrastructure | Routinely monitor user permissions to ensure only the expected users have the capability to modify cloud compute infrastructure components. | | enterprise | T1578.001 | Create Snapshot | Routinely check user permissions to ensure only the expected users have the capability to create snapshots and backups. | | enterprise | T1578.002 | Create Cloud Instance | Routinely check user permissions to ensure only the expected users have the capability to create new instances. | | enterprise | T1578.003 | Delete Cloud Instance | Routinely check user permissions to ensure only the expected users have the capability to delete new instances. | | enterprise | T1566 | Phishing | - | | enterprise | T1566.002 | Spearphishing Link | Audit applications and their permissions to ensure access to data and resources are limited based upon necessity and principle of least privilege. | | enterprise | T1542 | Pre-OS Boot | - | | enterprise | T1542.004 | ROMMONkit | Periodically check the integrity of system image to ensure it has not been modified. 13 14 15 | | enterprise | T1542.005 | TFTP Boot | Periodically check the integrity of the running configuration and system image to ensure they have not been modified. 14 13 15 | | enterprise | T1563 | Remote Service Session Hijacking | - | | enterprise | T1563.002 | RDP Hijacking | Audit the Remote Desktop Users group membership regularly. Remove unnecessary accounts and groups from Remote Desktop Users groups. | | enterprise | T1021 | Remote Services | - | | enterprise | T1021.001 | Remote Desktop Protocol | Audit the Remote Desktop Users group membership regularly. Remove unnecessary accounts and groups from Remote Desktop Users groups. | | enterprise | T1021.005 | VNC | Inventory workstations for unauthorized VNC server software. | | enterprise | T1053 | Scheduled Task/Job | Toolkits like the PowerSploit framework contain PowerUp modules that can be used to explore systems for permission weaknesses in scheduled tasks that could be used to escalate privileges. 7 | | enterprise | T1053.002 | At | Toolkits like the PowerSploit framework contain PowerUp modules that can be used to explore systems for permission weaknesses in scheduled tasks that could be used to escalate privileges. 7 Windows operating system also creates a registry key specifically associated with the creation of a scheduled task on the destination host at: Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Schedule\TaskCache\Tree\At1. 19 In Linux and macOS environments, scheduled tasks using at can be audited locally, or through centrally collected logging, using syslog, or auditd events from the host. 20 | | enterprise | T1053.003 | Cron | Review changes to the cron schedule. cron execution can be reviewed within the /var/log directory. To validate the location of the cron log file, check the syslog config at /etc/rsyslog.conf or /etc/syslog.conf | | enterprise | T1053.005 | Scheduled Task | Toolkits like the PowerSploit framework contain PowerUp modules that can be used to explore systems for permission weaknesses in scheduled tasks that could be used to escalate privileges. 7 | | enterprise | T1505 | Server Software Component | Regularly check component software on critical services that adversaries may target for persistence to verify the integrity of the systems and identify if unexpected changes have been made. | | enterprise | T1505.001 | SQL Stored Procedures | Regularly check component software on critical services that adversaries may target for persistence to verify the integrity of the systems and identify if unexpected changes have been made. | | enterprise | T1505.002 | Transport Agent | Regularly check component software on critical services that adversaries may target for persistence to verify the integrity of the systems and identify if unexpected changes have been made. | | enterprise | T1505.004 | IIS Components | Regularly check installed IIS components to verify the integrity of the web server and identify if unexpected changes have been made. | | enterprise | T1505.005 | Terminal Services DLL | Regularly check component software on critical services that adversaries may target for persistence to verify the integrity of the systems and identify if unexpected changes have been made. | | enterprise | T1528 | Steal Application Access Token | Administrators should audit all cloud and container accounts to ensure that they are necessary and that the permissions granted to them are appropriate. Additionally, administrators should perform an audit of all OAuth applications and the permissions they have been granted to access organizational data. This should be done extensively on all applications in order to establish a baseline, followed up on with periodic audits of new or updated applications. Suspicious applications should be investigated and removed. | | enterprise | T1558 | Steal or Forge Kerberos Tickets | - | | enterprise | T1558.004 | AS-REP Roasting | Kerberos preauthentication is enabled by default. Older protocols might not support preauthentication therefore it is possible to have this setting disabled. Make sure that all accounts have preauthentication whenever possible and audit changes to setting. Windows tools such as PowerShell may be used to easily find which accounts have preauthentication disabled. 1011 | | enterprise | T1552 | Unsecured Credentials | Preemptively search for files containing passwords or other credentials and take actions to reduce the exposure risk when found. | | enterprise | T1552.001 | Credentials In Files | Preemptively search for files containing passwords and take actions to reduce the exposure risk when found. | | enterprise | T1552.002 | Credentials in Registry | Proactively search for credentials within the Registry and attempt to remediate the risk. | | enterprise | T1552.004 | Private Keys | Ensure only authorized keys are allowed access to critical resources and audit access lists regularly. | | enterprise | T1552.006 | Group Policy Preferences | Search SYSVOL for any existing GGPs that may contain credentials and remove them.9 | | enterprise | T1550 | Use Alternate Authentication Material | - | | enterprise | T1550.001 | Application Access Token | Administrators should audit all cloud and container accounts to ensure that they are necessary and that the permissions granted to them are appropriate. Where possible, the ability to request temporary account tokens on behalf of another accounts should be disabled. Additionally, administrators can leverage audit tools to monitor actions that can be conducted as a result of OAuth 2.0 access. For instance, audit reports enable admins to identify privilege escalation actions such as role creations or policy modifications, which could be actions performed after initial access. | | enterprise | T1204 | User Execution | - | | enterprise | T1204.003 | Malicious Image | Audit images deployed within the environment to ensure they do not contain any malicious components. |

References


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  8. Sean Metcalf. (2015, December 28). Finding Passwords in SYSVOL & Exploiting Group Policy Preferences. Retrieved February 17, 2020. 

  9. Microsoft. (2012, July 18). Preauthentication. Retrieved August 24, 2020. 

  10. Jeff Warren. (2019, June 27). Cracking Active Directory Passwords with AS-REP Roasting. Retrieved August 24, 2020. 

  11. National Security Agency, Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency. (2022, March). Kubernetes Hardening Guide. Retrieved April 1, 2022. 

  12. Cisco. (n.d.). Cisco IOS Software Integrity Assurance - Image File Integrity. Retrieved October 21, 2020. 

  13. Cisco. (n.d.). Cisco IOS Software Integrity Assurance - Cisco IOS Image File Verification. Retrieved October 19, 2020. 

  14. Cisco. (n.d.). Cisco IOS Software Integrity Assurance - Change Control. Retrieved October 21, 2020. 

  15. Robbins, A., Vazarkar, R., and Schroeder, W. (2016, April 17). Bloodhound: Six Degrees of Domain Admin. Retrieved March 5, 2019. 

  16. Amazon. (2019, May 17). How can I secure the files in my Amazon S3 bucket?. Retrieved October 4, 2019. 

  17. Bierstock, D., Baker, A. (2019, March 21). I am AD FS and So Can You. Retrieved December 17, 2020. 

  18. Carvey, H.. (2014, September). Where You AT?: Indicators of Lateral Movement Using at.exe on Windows 7 Systems. Retrieved November 27, 2019. 

  19. Koromicha. (2019, September 7). Scheduling tasks using at command in Linux. Retrieved December 3, 2019. 

  20. Microsoft. (n.d.). Get-InboxRule. Retrieved June 10, 2021. 

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