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T1560.001 Archive via Utility

Adversaries may use utilities to compress and/or encrypt collected data prior to exfiltration. Many utilities include functionalities to compress, encrypt, or otherwise package data into a format that is easier/more secure to transport.

Adversaries may abuse various utilities to compress or encrypt data before exfiltration. Some third party utilities may be preinstalled, such as tar on Linux and macOS or zip on Windows systems.

On Windows, diantz or makecab may be used to package collected files into a cabinet (.cab) file. diantz may also be used to download and compress files from remote locations (i.e. Remote Data Staging).4 xcopy on Windows can copy files and directories with a variety of options. Additionally, adversaries may use certutil to Base64 encode collected data before exfiltration.

Adversaries may use also third party utilities, such as 7-Zip, WinRAR, and WinZip, to perform similar activities.312

Item Value
ID T1560.001
Sub-techniques T1560.001, T1560.002, T1560.003
Tactics TA0009
Platforms Linux, Windows, macOS
Version 1.2
Created 20 February 2020
Last Modified 14 April 2023

Procedure Examples

ID Name Description
S0622 AppleSeed AppleSeed can zip and encrypt data collected on a target system.22
G0006 APT1 APT1 has used RAR to compress files before moving them outside of the victim network.61
G0007 APT28 APT28 has used a variety of utilities, including WinRAR, to archive collected data with password protection.56
G0022 APT3 APT3 has used tools to compress data before exfilling it.45
G0064 APT33 APT33 has used WinRAR to compress data prior to exfil.49
G0087 APT39 APT39 has used WinRAR and 7-Zip to compress an archive stolen data.48
G0096 APT41 APT41 created a RAR archive of targeted files for exfiltration.53
G0143 Aquatic Panda Aquatic Panda has used WinRAR to compress memory dumps prior to exfiltration.66
G0060 BRONZE BUTLER BRONZE BUTLER has compressed data into password-protected RAR archives prior to exfiltration.3435
S0274 Calisto Calisto uses the zip -r command to compress the data collected on the local system.1314
S1043 ccf32 ccf32 has used xcopy \\<target_host>\c$\users\public\path.7z c:\users\public\bin\<target_host>.7z /H /Y to archive collected files.12
S0160 certutil certutil may be used to Base64 encode collected data.98
G0114 Chimera Chimera has used gzip for Linux OS and a modified RAR software to archive data on Windows hosts.5455
G0052 CopyKittens CopyKittens uses ZPP, a .NET console program, to compress files with ZIP.46
S0212 CORALDECK CORALDECK has created password-protected RAR, WinImage, and zip archives to be exfiltrated.18
S0538 Crutch Crutch has used the WinRAR utility to compress and encrypt stolen files.20
S0187 Daserf Daserf hides collected data in password-protected .rar archives.21
S0062 DustySky DustySky can compress files via RAR while staging data to be exfiltrated.16
G1006 Earth Lusca Earth Lusca has used WinRAR to compress stolen files into an archive prior to exfiltration.63
G0061 FIN8 FIN8 has used RAR to compress collected data before exfiltration.47
G0117 Fox Kitten Fox Kitten has used 7-Zip to archive data.62
C0007 FunnyDream During FunnyDream, the threat actors used 7zr.exe to add collected files to an archive.12
G0093 GALLIUM GALLIUM used WinRAR to compress and encrypt stolen data prior to exfiltration.3738
G0084 Gallmaker Gallmaker has used WinZip, likely to archive data prior to exfiltration.57
G0125 HAFNIUM HAFNIUM has used 7-Zip and WinRAR to compress stolen files for exfiltration.5859
S1022 IceApple IceApple can encrypt and compress files using Gzip prior to exfiltration.24
S0278 iKitten iKitten will zip up the /Library/Keychains directory before exfiltrating it.31
S0260 InvisiMole InvisiMole uses WinRAR to compress data that is intended to be exfiltrated.32
G0004 Ke3chang Ke3chang is known to use 7Zip and RAR with passwords to encrypt data prior to exfiltration.5051
G0094 Kimsuky Kimsuky has used QuickZip to archive stolen files before exfiltration.36
G0059 Magic Hound Magic Hound has used gzip to archive dumped LSASS process memory and RAR to stage and compress local folders.444342
G0045 menuPass menuPass has compressed files before exfiltration using TAR and RAR.403941
S0339 Micropsia Micropsia creates a RAR archive based on collected files on the victim’s machine.30
G0069 MuddyWater MuddyWater has used the native Windows cabinet creation tool, makecab.exe, likely to compress stolen data to be uploaded.33
G0129 Mustang Panda Mustang Panda has used RAR to create password-protected archives of collected documents prior to exfiltration.6465
S0340 Octopus Octopus has compressed data before exfiltrating it using a tool called Abbrevia.23
S0439 Okrum Okrum was seen using a RAR archiver tool to compress/decompress data.11
S0264 OopsIE OopsIE compresses collected files with GZipStream before sending them to its C2 server.19
C0012 Operation CuckooBees During Operation CuckooBees, the threat actors used the Makecab utility to compress and a version of WinRAR to create password-protected archives of stolen data prior to exfiltration.69
C0022 Operation Dream Job During Operation Dream Job, Lazarus Group archived victim’s data into a RAR file.73
C0006 Operation Honeybee During Operation Honeybee, the threat actors uses zip to pack collected files before exfiltration.68
C0014 Operation Wocao During Operation Wocao, threat actors archived collected files with WinRAR, prior to exfiltration.67
S0428 PoetRAT PoetRAT has the ability to compress files with zip.15
S0378 PoshC2 PoshC2 contains a module for compressing data using ZIP.10
S0441 PowerShower PowerShower has used 7Zip to compress .txt, .pdf, .xls or .doc files prior to exfiltration.17
S0196 PUNCHBUGGY PUNCHBUGGY has Gzipped information and saved it to a random temp file before exfil.26
S0192 Pupy Pupy can compress data with Zip before sending it over C2.6
S0458 Ramsay Ramsay can compress and archive collected files using WinRAR.2829
S1040 Rclone Rclone can compress files using gzip prior to exfiltration.7
C0024 SolarWinds Compromise During the SolarWinds Compromise, APT29 used 7-Zip to compress stolen emails into password-protected archives prior to exfltration; APT29 also compressed text files into zipped archives.707271
G0054 Sowbug Sowbug extracted documents and bundled them into a RAR archive.52
S0647 Turian Turian can use WinRAR to create a password-protected archive for files of interest.25
G0010 Turla Turla has encrypted files stolen from connected USB drives into a RAR file before exfiltration.60
S0466 WindTail WindTail has the ability to use the macOS built-in zip utility to archive files.27


ID Mitigation Description
M1047 Audit System scans can be performed to identify unauthorized archival utilities.


ID Data Source Data Component
DS0017 Command Command Execution
DS0022 File File Creation
DS0009 Process Process Creation


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