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T1437.001 Web Protocols

Adversaries may communicate using application layer protocols associated with web protocols traffic to avoid detection/network filtering by blending in with existing traffic. Commands to remote mobile devices, and often the results of those commands, will be embedded within the protocol traffic between the mobile client and server.

Web protocols such as HTTP and HTTPS are used for web traffic as well as well as notification services native to mobile messaging services such as Google Cloud Messaging (GCM) and newly, Firebase Cloud Messaging (FCM), (GCM/FCM: two-way communication) and Apple Push Notification Service (APNS; one-way server-to-device). Such notification services leverage HTTP/S via the respective API and are commonly abused on Android and iOS respectively in order blend in with routine device traffic making it difficult for enterprises to inspect.

Item Value
ID T1437.001
Sub-techniques T1437.001
Tactics TA0037
Platforms Android, iOS
Version 1.0
Created 01 April 2022
Last Modified 06 April 2022

Procedure Examples

ID Name Description
S1061 AbstractEmu AbstractEmu can use HTTP to communicate with the C2 server.19
S0525 Android/AdDisplay.Ashas Android/AdDisplay.Ashas has communicated with the C2 server using HTTP.5
S0304 Android/Chuli.A Android/Chuli.A used HTTP uploads to a URL as a command and control mechanism.21
S0540 Asacub Asacub has communicated with the C2 using HTTP POST requests.1
S0432 Bread Bread communicates with the C2 server using HTTP requests.14
S0480 Cerberus Cerberus communicates with the C2 server using HTTP.15
S0555 CHEMISTGAMES CHEMISTGAMES has used HTTPS for C2 communication.27
S0426 Concipit1248 Concipit1248 communicates with the C2 server using HTTP requests.12
S0425 Corona Updates Corona Updates communicates with the C2 server using HTTP requests.12
G0070 Dark Caracal Dark Caracal controls implants using standard HTTP communication.33
S0479 DEFENSOR ID DEFENSOR ID has used Firebase Cloud Messaging for C2.6
S0478 EventBot EventBot communicates with the C2 using HTTP requests.28
S0522 Exobot Exobot has used HTTPS for C2 communication.16
S0405 Exodus Exodus One checks in with the command and control server using HTTP POST requests.10
S0509 FakeSpy FakeSpy exfiltrates data using HTTP requests.7
S1067 FluBot FluBot can use HTTP POST requests on port 80 for communicating with its C2 server.22
S0535 Golden Cup Golden Cup has communicated with the C2 using MQTT and HTTP.11
S0551 GoldenEagle GoldenEagle has used HTTP POST requests for C2.17
S0536 GPlayed GPlayed has communicated with the C2 using HTTP requests or WebSockets as a backup.9
S0406 Gustuff Gustuff communicates with the command and control server using HTTP requests.23
S0463 INSOMNIA INSOMNIA communicates with the C2 server using HTTPS requests.4
S0539 Red Alert 2.0 Red Alert 2.0 has communicated with the C2 using HTTP.29
S0326 RedDrop RedDrop uses HTTP requests for C2 communication.8
S0403 Riltok Riltok communicates with the command and control server using HTTP requests.31
S0411 Rotexy Rotexy can communicate with the command and control server using JSON payloads sent in HTTP POST request bodies. It can also communicate by using JSON messages sent through Google Cloud Messaging.25
S0313 RuMMS RuMMS uses HTTP for command and control.24
S1062 S.O.V.A. S.O.V.A. can use the open-source project RetroFit for C2 communication.30
S1055 SharkBot SharkBot can use HTTP to send C2 messages to infected devices.20
S0549 SilkBean SilkBean has used HTTPS for C2 communication.17
S0327 Skygofree Skygofree can be controlled via HTTP, XMPP, FirebaseCloudMessaging, or GoogleCloudMessaging in older versions.13
S0427 TrickMo TrickMo communicates with the C2 by sending JSON objects over unencrypted HTTP requests.32
S0307 uses Google Cloud Messaging (GCM) for command and control.18
S0306 Trojan-SMS.AndroidOS.FakeInst.a Trojan-SMS.AndroidOS.FakeInst.a uses Google Cloud Messaging (GCM) for command and control.18
S0308 Trojan-SMS.AndroidOS.OpFake.a Trojan-SMS.AndroidOS.OpFake.a uses Google Cloud Messaging (GCM) for command and control.18
S0418 ViceLeaker ViceLeaker uses HTTP requests for C2 communication.23
S0311 YiSpecter YiSpecter has connected to the C2 server via HTTP.26


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