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T1036.001 Invalid Code Signature

Adversaries may attempt to mimic features of valid code signatures to increase the chance of deceiving a user, analyst, or tool. Code signing provides a level of authenticity on a binary from the developer and a guarantee that the binary has not been tampered with. Adversaries can copy the metadata and signature information from a signed program, then use it as a template for an unsigned program. Files with invalid code signatures will fail digital signature validation checks, but they may appear more legitimate to users and security tools may improperly handle these files.1

Unlike Code Signing, this activity will not result in a valid signature.

Item Value
ID T1036.001
Sub-techniques T1036.001, T1036.002, T1036.003, T1036.004, T1036.005, T1036.006, T1036.007, T1036.008
Tactics TA0005
Platforms Windows, macOS
Version 1.0
Created 10 February 2020
Last Modified 10 February 2020

Procedure Examples

ID Name Description
G0067 APT37 APT37 has signed its malware with an invalid digital certificates listed as “Tencent Technology (Shenzhen) Company Limited.”8
S0128 BADNEWS BADNEWS is sometimes signed with an invalid Authenticode certificate in an apparent effort to make it look more legitimate.4
S0666 Gelsemium Gelsemium has used unverified signatures on malicious DLLs.6
S0198 NETWIRE The NETWIRE client has been signed by fake and invalid digital certificates.3
S1050 PcShare PcShare has used an invalid certificate in attempt to appear legitimate.2
S0019 Regin Regin stage 1 modules for 64-bit systems have been found to be signed with fake certificates masquerading as originating from Microsoft Corporation and Broadcom Corporation.7
G0112 Windshift Windshift has used revoked certificates to sign malware.59
S0466 WindTail WindTail has been incompletely signed with revoked certificates.5


ID Mitigation Description
M1045 Code Signing Require signed binaries.


ID Data Source Data Component
DS0022 File File Metadata